Cash-based anticipatory action around the world
Find out more about the use of cash-based early actions with examples from different countries.
The Red Cross Red Crescent Movement and Anticipatory Action: a commitment to collaborate
Anticipatory action began with pilots initiated by the German Red Cross. Today, anticipatory approaches are being implemented in over 60 countries, thanks to commitments from governments, donors and key stakeholders such as IFRC, WFP, FAO, the Start Network and OCHA. It is crucial that these initiatives complement the wider work of the development and climate community to strengthen government systems, especially national disaster risk-management frameworks.
There are several existing networks, forums, partnerships and platforms that are directly supporting, or highly relevant to anticipatory action. Global initiatives to scale up anticipatory action approaches include the Anticipatory Action Focus Task Force, the Risk Informed Early Action Partnership (REAP) and the Anticipation Hub.
Overview of Red Cross/Red Crescent forecast-based actions that use cash and voucher assistance as a modality:
|Argentina||Flood||Cash||EAP being developed, cash transfer under consideration |
to cover evacuation & basic needs.
|10 days||Distribution of unconditional cash grants of 4500 BDT |
(approximately USD 53). These grants are meant to
help people evacuate or otherwise prepare for the
floods, thereby reducing their losses.
|Ecuador||Volcanic ash||Unconditional |
|Not fixed||Cash is delivered by debit card if >10mm ash is |
projected to fall in an area. Cash is meant to allow
households to meet their basic needs (food, animal
|Ecuador||El Niño||Unconditional |
|7 days||Based on the 7-day forecast cash grants of USD200 are|
delivered through IFRC VISA debit cards.
|Not fixed||The Kenyan Red Cross (KRCS) does not have an official|
EAP approved yet but do already “act early”, whereby
they utilize drought early warning from Kenya Famine
Early Warning Systems Network (FEWSNET) and
National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) to
implement early actions to reduce food insecurity-
related morbidities and mortalities and negative coping
strategies. The early actions included pre-registration of
vulnerable households in drought prone areas and
multi-purpose cash transfers to drought affected
population in selected counties in Kenya. It is aligned to
support the national social protection programme, the
HSNP in arid and semi-arid counties: a drought
scalability framework has thresholds based on the
vegetation index, triggering cash transfers as each
threshold is reached. The KRCS currently works with
national stakeholders to develop an EAP for
drought. More information is available in these
–Drought Early Waring Early Action:
Using Cash Assistance in Kenya
–A buffer against the drought – Riding
on the Hunger Safety Net Programme
platform to deliver aid to the most
vulnerable through the use of Bank Accounts
|Kenya||Floods||Cash /CfW||7 days||The KRCS currently works with national stakeholders to |
develop an EAP for floods (validation in process). In the
draft EAP, KRCS proposed CfW to place flood markers
and conditional cash grants or vouchers toward
evacuation support to move prior to flooding to their
location of choice (hosts, family, friends) or a temporary
shelter site. KRCS also considers CfW to clear drains.
|Mongolia||Dzud*||Cash||3 months||Unconditional cash grants are distributed to herder |
households to help them meet their specific needs
during the Dzud*. With limited resources and
manpower herders struggle to stock hay fodder for
their livestock until the grass starts growing. Cash
grants allow herders to meet a variety of needs such as
hay, fodder, warm clothes, and medicine.*The Dzud is a
natural disaster consisting of a summer drought
resulting in inadequate pasture and production of
hay, followed by very heavy winter snow and winds.
The heavy snow prevents livestock and wildlife from
accessing pasture and thus leading to mass death
basically from starvation.
|Peru||Intense rainfall, |
|Cash||7 days||Most vulnerable (based upon selection criteria) receive |
cash grants of USD150 delivered through National Bank
upon presentation of an ID card. Preparations start
based on the 30-day forecast.
|Philippines||flood||CfW||2 days||Teams of 20 farmers and/or fishermen are provided |
with cash for work to construct temporary livestock
pens for evacuated animals at each evacuation
site. Blog link to simex on cash and SRSP for flood EA
|Philippines||cyclone / |
|CfW||3 days||Cash for work is provided for people to help with early |
harvest of crops, to help reinforce houses, or clean
drains, as appropriate given the season.
(to be defined)
|German Red Cross, British Red Cross, |
Climate Centre, Netherlands Red Cross
510 initiative, currently support some
National Societies as part of the Anticipatory
Action SAP for drought. Drought feasibility
studies as well as cash preparedness are currently
ongoing. Cash is highly likely to be
selected as an early action in Lesotho, eSwatini
Lesotho: the next hazard identified for EAP development
will be heavy snowfall. UN agencies
currently plan to engage in anticipatory action.
|Uganda||flood||Cash||7 days||Distribution of electronic /mobile money cash & |
voucher assistance to facilitate evacuation and help
affected families meet their basic needs.
|Cash||This project, started in 2020, aims to integrate shock |
responsiveness and anticipatory action into Nepal’s
Social Security Allowance (SSA) programme to inform
the development of more responsive and anticipatory
social protection and early warning systems that
protect the most vulnerable before, during, and
aftershocks. In November 2021, the Nepal Red Cross
Society, with support from the Danish Red Cross piloted
the use of multi-purpose cash grants to current SSA
recipients affected by unseasonal floods in the west of
Nepal. The grants were provided using the SSA social
registry for targeting, the SMS communication system
of the municipality, the SSA bank accounts of the
recipients for the distribution and encashment process
and finally, the SSA grievance/feedback mechanism was
used to address challenges throughout the action.
Lessons from this action are to be utilised to develop
the SoPs to implement multi-purpose cash through the
SSA system during the 2022 monsoon season in Nepal.
|Ethiopia||flood||Cash||7 days||Global Floods awareness system (GLOFAS) forecast |
triggers a rapid assessment and beneficiary
registrations. CVA support includes evacuation costs,
livestock feed, CfW to clear and maintain drainage lines
|voucher||This EAP has two triggers in two successive phases: |
1) in April, with an online season forecast (SEAS5) and
a lead time of 3 months.
2) in November, anticipating a future food crisis based
on the food insecurity assessment observed by the
Cadre Harmonisé/IPCI of IPC 3 or more for the
following year’s lean season and the assessment of
production conditions in addition to the assessment of
the previous rainy season (GEOGLAM) early warning
crop monitor (of below 50), with a lead time of five
This includes a cash transfer to well working cereal
banks (bank transfer), allowing them to increase
their stock before prices rise too much or the availability of
cereals decreases, and a cash transfer to households
in the same community (using vouchers) enabling
them to access the subsidized cereal banks for free.
This scheme allows unconditional food access
to 1,000 vulnerable HH and cut by half
the grain cost for an additional 1,000 HH.